I believe I have determined why this happens and how to fix it. Unfortunately, it's not a simple end-user solution. Super short version: Update your Exchange 2010 server to SP3 and then add Update Rollup 3. Or, upgrade or migrate to Exchange 2013.
I have posted all the info, with relevant links, on XDA.
Solved: Exchange Services kills battery - XDA Forum
I hope this helps some of y'all 'cause this problem has been kicking my buttocks for months!